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adenovirus

adenovirus

see also:

introduction

  • human adenoviruses are a group of common viruses with a wide range of clinical manifestations
  • it is also an important pathogen in immunocompromised patients such as post-transplant
  • there are 51 serotypes currently recognized, classified into 6 species (A-F)
  • pattern of illness tends to be species and/or serotype specific
  • can be rapidly spread in closed environments through respiratory secretions and potentially through contaminated surfaces
  • most patients with HAdV infection are younger than 5 years but it often infects adults as well

adenoviral acute respiratory disease

  • mainly adenovirus types 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6; occasionally, 3 and 7
  • 50% are subclinical
  • highly contagious as secretions or saliva contain very high concentrations of viral particles and in non-immune persons only 5 particles may be needed to start infection
  • usually presents as coryza lasting 3-5 days
  • may present as acute bronchitis - bronchitis with conjunctivitis suggests adenoviral infection
  • may cause prolonged fevers, raised CRP
  • uncommonly causes encephalitis, hepatitis, and myocarditis
  • rarely causes pneumonia - may be fatal in neonates - usually with serotypes 3, 7, 14, 21, and 30

pertussis-like prolonged hacking cough

  • may take 3-4 weeks for recovery

AD14 "super cold"

  • 40% hospitalized - half required ICU
  • 5% mortality

Pharyngoconjunctival fever

  • mainly serotypes 3, 4, and 7
  • usually school aged children, often on summer school camps or in military trainees where swimming in lakes or dams may be mode of spread
  • acute conjunctivitis occurs with or without pharyngitis or a respiratory syndrome
  • incubation period is 5 days
  • self-limited to 5 days
  • may also develop exanthem, diarrhoea and rarely, encephalitis

Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

  • mainly serotypes 8, 19, and 37
  • highly contagious
  • incubation period 8 days
  • insidious onset in one eye then spreads to the other
  • corneal involvement results in painful red eyes with tearing and photophobia
  • malaise, headaches, fever, lymphadenopathy may occur

Acute hemorrhagic cystitis or nephritis

  • mainly serotypes 11 and 21
  • usually affects ages 5-15yrs or immunosuppressed adults
  • haematuria is self-limited to 3 days

Gastroenteritis

  • mainly serotypes 40 and 41
  • a common cause of infantile diarrhea in the daycare setting
  • fever and watery diarrhoea are usually limited to 1-2 weeks

Intussuception / Mesenteric adenitis

  • mainly associated with nonenteric adenovirus serotypes (1, 2, 3, 5, 6)
adenovirus.txt · Last modified: 2019/03/27 08:55 (external edit)