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paratyphoid enteric fever


  • there are three serovars of the species of S. enterica that cause paratyphoid: S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B (S. schottmuelleri and S. pullorum), and S. Paratyphi C (S. hirschfeldii).
  • they are transmitted by means of contaminated water or food via faecal-oral route
  • as with Salmonella typhi (typhoid enteric fever) to which they share similar clinical features and Mx, cases in Australia are almost all acquired outside of Australia
  • travellers should be vaccinated with typhoid vaccine which also protects against paratyphoid B.
  • owners of tropical fish should ensure scrupulous cleaning of aquariums to eliminate potential S. Paratyphi B organisms.
  • there are about 16 million cases a year, which result in about 25,000 deaths worldwide
  • unlike S. typhi, the reservoir for S. paratyphi may include domestic animals as well as humans.

clinical features

  • paratyphoid fever resembles Salmonella typhi (typhoid enteric fever) but presents with a more abrupt onset, milder symptoms and a shorter course.
  • see typhoid fever for clinical features and Mx.
  • in addition to faecal carriage, some may become urinary carriers (especially those with Schistosomiasis)
  • Paratyphoid A is found in large parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America
  • Paratyphoid B is more common in Europe and unlike typhoid is also associated with herpes labialis, and may cause a severe gastroenteritis
  • Paratyphoid C is rare and mainly occurs in the Far East. It may cause cholecystitis.
paratyphoid.txt · Last modified: 2012/01/04 01:37 by

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