paratyphoid enteric fever
- there are three serovars of the species of S. enterica that cause paratyphoid: S. Paratyphi A, S. Paratyphi B (S. schottmuelleri and S. pullorum), and S. Paratyphi C (S. hirschfeldii).
- they are transmitted by means of contaminated water or food via faecal-oral route
- as with Salmonella typhi (typhoid enteric fever) to which they share similar clinical features and Mx, cases in Australia are almost all acquired outside of Australia
- travellers should be vaccinated with typhoid vaccine which also protects against paratyphoid B.
- owners of tropical fish should ensure scrupulous cleaning of aquariums to eliminate potential S. Paratyphi B organisms.
- there are about 16 million cases a year, which result in about 25,000 deaths worldwide
- unlike S. typhi, the reservoir for S. paratyphi may include domestic animals as well as humans.
- paratyphoid fever resembles Salmonella typhi (typhoid enteric fever) but presents with a more abrupt onset, milder symptoms and a shorter course.
- see typhoid fever for clinical features and Mx.
- in addition to faecal carriage, some may become urinary carriers (especially those with Schistosomiasis)
- Paratyphoid A is found in large parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America
- Paratyphoid B is more common in Europe and unlike typhoid is also associated with herpes labialis, and may cause a severe gastroenteritis
- Paratyphoid C is rare and mainly occurs in the Far East. It may cause cholecystitis.
paratyphoid.txt · Last modified: 2012/01/04 01:37 by 127.0.0.1