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alopecia

alopecia

Introduction

Patterns of alopecia

  • male pattern balding
  • female pattern hair loss
    • a diffuse thinning of scalp hair has a polygenetic inheritance and affects 40% of women by age 50 and 55% by age 80yrs
    • often no cause is found but one should consider:
      • thyroid disease
      • polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (although tends to cause general body hirsutism but may cause scalp thinning) or other androgen disorders
      • congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    • DDx includes chronic telogen effluvium which has a different Mx
  • cicatricial alopecia
    • hair loss due to scarring of the skin
    • burns
    • trauma
    • skin infections
    • keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans
    • perifolliculitis capitis abscendens et suffodiens
    • folliculitis decalvans (rare)
  • alopecia areata
    • sudden appearance of one or more round areas of hair loss
    • aka autoimmune alopecia
    • affects 1-2% of people over their lifetime and starts in childhood in 50% and before the age of 40yrs in 80%
    • appears to have an auto-immune causation and a genetic basis with at least 8 genes detected
    • it may be precipitated by viral infection, trauma, hormonal change, or stress
    • may be caused by immunodeficiencies such as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and coeliac disease
    • DDx includes fungal infections such as tinea capitis
  • alopecia totalis
    • as with alopecia areata but involves the whole scalp and affects 5% of patients with autoimmune alopecia
  • alopecia universalis
    • as with alopecia areata but involves the whole body and affects 1% of patients with autoimmune alopecia
  • tricotillomania
alopecia.txt · Last modified: 2019/07/13 17:19 by wh