h_medicine

timeline of events in the history of medicine

21st century

  • research based on genome analysis

2010's:

  • hospitals gradually adding WiFi capabilities

2000's

  • decade of HPV vaccination, angioplasty and stenting for AMI in preference to thrombolysis, controversial thrombolysis for acute stroke, BiPaP/CPAP for APO and other respiratory conditions, ED bedside ultrasound, increasing substance abuse issues, increasing hospital overcrowding in Western countries due in part to the aging population, formation of ED observation units and fast track streaming
  • ED bedside ultrasound becomes common place for trauma and early pregnancy patients in particular
  • Gardasil HPV wart virus vaccination for teenage girls dramatically reduces incidence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer
  • VRE and clostridium difficile infections become increasing issues in hospitals
  • SARS outbreak
  • aging population with increasing healthcare expectations and demands, with decreasing social supports with the further decentralisation of the family unit contributed to hospital overcrowding and increasing bed access block in Western societies
  • post-911 global psyche ramifications spurs a return in living for the day, taking risks and new level of sexual promiscuity and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STDs/STIs) after the 1990's era of relative risk averse behaviour following the fears of AIDS

20th century

1990's:

  • decade dominated by fears of the AIDS epidemic offset by important strides forwards with HiB vaccination, MRI scanners introduced, CT scanners and ultrasound machines much improved and more readily available, the internet, mapping of the human genome, de-institutionalisation of mental health care
  • 1998: leukotriene receptor antagonists marketed for Rx of asthma
  • 1995: 1st HIV protease antiretroviral agent hits the market - a HIV protease inhibitor, saquinavir, 1st discovered in 1987
  • 1995: meta-analysis suggested that primary angioplasty had better outcomes than iv thrombolysis for AMI leading to a push for emergent 24×7 “hot” angio facilities
  • 1992-95: several studies confirmed that ACEI's reduced mortality and morbidity when started after AMI, joining the roles of aspirin, betablockers and statins, however, long term antiarrhythmic agents increased mortality in general.
  • 1993: GUSTO trial of thrombolytics in AMI showed that accelerated dose tPA PLUS heparin improved survival compared with streptokinase, and the LATE study showed there was benefit even if given after 6-12hrs after onset
  • 1993: Haemophilus influenza B (HiB) vaccination rapidly eradicates invasive Hib infections such as epiglottitis, Hib meningitis and periorbital cellulitis
  • 1992: Richards: genetics of Fragile X syndrome and elucidation of a new genetic mechanism
  • 1991: Histoacryl tissue adhesive (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) starts to be used in Australian EDs for superficial wound closure in children
  • 1991: Australian court ruling on involuntary passive smoking starts the process of banning smoking indoors at work, public buildings and then in cars
  • 1991: budesonide showed to suppress growth in children
  • 1991: home nebulisers and peak flow meters for astham Rx
  • 1991: epigenetics: relationship of maternal starvation to diabetes in their offspring
  • 1990: AIDS prevention advertising campaigns combined with economic recession leads to more risk averse sexual behaviours until 911 changed the Western world
  • 1990: neurofibromatosis gene disc.
  • 1990: subcutaneous progesterone only implants (Norplant) introduced in USA
  • 1990: Reyes et al: hep E virus disc.
  • 1990: Goto: disc. of endogenous digitalis-like factor
  • 1990: working party conclude that Helicobacter pylori is indeed the major factor in peptic ulcer disease
  • 1990: salmeterol for nocturnal asthma and recognition of growth suppression in children Rx with oral prednisolone for mild asthma
  • 1990: patient asthma Mx plans - peak flow vs symptom only

1980's:

  • decade of the CT scanner and diagnostic ultrasound machine, personal computer, AIDS, Helicobacter as cause of peptic ulcer disease, thrombolysis for AMI, IVF, new viruses discovered including HIV and hep C, 1st antivirals for herpes, and the development of emergency medicine as a specialty. Major campaigns to reduce road trauma - speeding, alcohol, safer cars in particular.
  • 1989: biosynthetic pathway of nitric oxide discovered
  • 1989: MRC approves funding for Human Genome Mapping Project
  • 1989: Kerem: cystic fibrosis gene disc.
  • 1988: ISIS-2 trial of streptokinase and/or aspirin for AMI
  • 1988: Yanagisawa et al: endothelins disc.
  • 1988: RU486 (mifepristone) licensed for use in France to assit with terminations
  • 1988: Choo et al: Hep C virus discovered
  • 1988: Histoacryl tissue adhesive (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) widely used in UK for superficial wound closure
  • 1987: 1st colour computer screens
  • 1987: 1st antiretroviral agent marketed - a nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor for Rx of HIV - zidovudine
  • 1987: Palmer: nitric oxide release accounts for activity of endothelin relaxing factor
  • 1986: GISSI trial of iv thrombolytic Rx (streptokinase) for AMI results in push for early iv thrombolysis in STEMI
  • 1985: TIMI trial of streptokinase vs tPA for AMI
  • 1985: DNA profiling techniques
  • 1985: HIV virus identified as the causal agent of AIDS
  • 1985: Asch et al: Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer (GIFT) - a new Rx for infertility
  • 1985: Campbell: suggested angiotensin II could be produced in tissues rather than in circulation and following year showed presence of m-RNA for angiotensinogen in tissues
  • 1984: 1st Macintosh computer
  • 1984: r-tPA (Alteplase) 1st iv tpa thrombolytic to be used for AMI
  • 1984: depo Provera granted limited licence as a contraceptive in the UK
  • 1984: Morris et al: calcitonin gene related peptide isolated and characterised
  • 1983: Steere et al: Borrelia as cause of Lyme disease
  • 1983: adenovirus serotypes 40,41 associated with gastroenteritis
  • 1983: Warren: rediscovery of Helicobacter and linked it to peptic ulcer disease
  • 1983: Gusella et al: gene marker linked to Huntington's chorea
  • 1982: Spiess et al: growth hormone releasing factor characterised
  • 1982: Philibert et al: synthesis of RU486 (mifepristone) - later used to procur medical terminations
  • 1982: Smith: anti-digoxin Fab antibody fragments used to Rx digoxin toxicity
  • 1982: ceftriaxone studied
  • 1982: Carrell: structure and function of human antitrypin
  • 1982: Murdoch Institute for research into birth defects founded at RCH, Melbourne
  • 1981: 1st Intel-based PC leading to computer terminals in hospitals for use by doctors (particular in the late 1980's)
  • 1981: Spiess et al: ovine corticotrophin releasing factor identified
  • 1981: Centre for Disease Control recognises AIDS
  • 1981: verapamil approved in USA for use in angina and SVT
  • 1981: ceftazidime and moxolactam studied
  • 1981: International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) established
  • 1980: imipenem discovered
  • 1980: McCarthy: sulphasalazine to Rx rheumatoid arthritis
  • 1980: Furchgott: showed obligatory role of endothelium in arterial smooth muscle relaxation
  • c1980: acyclovir discovered

1970's:

  • decade of the pocket calculator, road trauma prevention programs, cephalosporins, IUCD, permanent pacemaker, invasive ICU monitoring, increasing antibiotic resistance, cardiac arrest protocols
  • 1979: 3rd generation cephalosporins studied - cefotaxime
  • 1978: 1st Epson dot matrix printer
  • 1978: bretylium approved in USA as antiarrhythmic and was included in the cardiac arrest protocol for some years
  • 1978: disopyramide approved in USA for RX of some ventricular arrhythmias
  • 1978: clavulonic acid studied
  • 1978: Ganong: theory of conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by ACE in the pulmonary circulation
  • 1977: 1st successful intubation techniques by paramedics
  • 1977: 1st Commodore microcomputer
  • 1977: Jick et al: disc. that smokers have 2yrs earlier menopause on average
  • 1977: Yuzpe: morning after pill introduced
  • 1977: Kaposi's sarcoma reported in 2 homosexual men
  • 1977: last reported case of smallpox
  • 1977: Lord: endogenous opioid peptides discovered
  • 1977: cefaclor
  • 1977: clinical psychology recognised as an independent profession
  • 1976: slow release progesterone introduced: Progestasert
  • c1976: non-A non-B hepatitis coined
  • 1976: ECMO 1st used for neonatal respiratory distress
  • 1975: endogenous opioid peptides discovered
  • 1975: voluntary obortion legalised in France
  • 1975: Shaul: teratogenic effects of warfarin
  • 1975: 2nd generation cephalosporins studied - cefoxitin
  • 1974: Glasgow Coma Score
  • 1974: Morson: recognition that colon cancers arise from adenoma rather than de novo
  • 1974: Copper 7 IUCD introduced
  • 1974: Multiload IUCD introduced
  • 1974: Dalkon shield withdrawn as risk of mid-trimester abortions and PID
  • 1974: 1st English report of Kawasaki disease
  • 1974: carbamazepine approved as anticonvulsant in USA
  • 1974: sodium nitroprusside approved in USA
  • 1973: opioid drug receptor discovered in CNS
  • 1973: Brazeau et al: somatostain isolated
  • 1973: rotavirus disc. by electron microscopy
  • 1973: Kakkar et al: clinical trials of low dose s/c heparin
  • 1973: Multicentre Trial Group: use of penicillamine in rheumatoid arthritis
  • 1972: 1st widely available pulse oximeter (weighed 17kg)
  • 1972: 1st daisywheel printers for computers
  • 1972: Charnley: satisfactory plastic replacement for hip joint produced
  • 1972: Kapikian et al: Norwalk virus disc. by immune electron microscopy
  • 1972: Copper T IUCD introduced
  • 1972: Said: vasoactive intestinal peptide discovered
  • 1972: Kawaguchi: amikacin discovered
  • 1972: clindamycin derived from lincomycin
  • 1972: spectinomycin studied
  • 1972: minocycline introduced and became favored for Rx of acne
  • 1972: 1st H2 antihistamines (used for peptic ulcers and reflux)
  • 1972: praziquantel shown to have antihelminthic properties
  • 1972: CT scanner (CAT scanner)
  • 1972: Hill: ECMO 1st used for ARDS
  • 1971: mebendazole for Rx of round worms
  • 1971: growth hormone synthesized
  • 1971: mebendazole introduced to Rx roundworms
  • 1971: Royal Medico-Psychological Association renamed Royal College of Psychiatrists (Australia)
  • 1970: nuclear powered cardiac pacemaker
  • 1970: Swan/Ganz: 1st easy to use balloon catheter to measure pulmonary artery and left atrium pressures
  • 1970: thyrotropin releasing hormone identified chemically
  • 1970: 1st gene synthesized

1960's:

  • the decade of intensive care units, MICA ambulances, mainframe computers, hormonal and IUCD contraception, and elucidation of chromosomal defects
  • 1969: rubella vaccine (introduced in Australia in 1970 for school girls)
  • 1969: 1st microchip for computers
  • 1969: 1st coronary artery bypass graft surgery
  • 1969: Lubs: 1st desc. Fragile X syndrome
  • 1969: food additives linked to cancer
  • 1969: cephalexin studied
  • 1969: pyrantel introduced as anti-helminthic in humans
  • 1968: Lemoine: fetal alcohol syndrome
  • 1968: Meadow: possible teratogenicity of phenytoin
  • 1968: oesophageal obturator airway device
  • 1968: Inman: 1st reports of DVT associated with OCP
  • 1968: Bhaskar: Histoacryl tissue adhesive (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) used in dental applications
  • 1968: rifampicin discovered
  • 1968: Bakhle: studied on bradykinin potentiating factors from snake venom
  • 1967: multiple opiate receptors postulated
  • 1967: Barnard: 1st heart transplants on humans
  • 1967: DNA synthesized
  • 1967: tobramycin studied
  • 1967: Altounyan: sodium chromoglycate shown to inhibit autacoid (eg. histamine) release
  • 1967: Fleckenstein: suggested that verapamil acts via calcium antagonism which he coined
  • 1967: cryosurgery used for Parkinson's disease
  • 1967: Kawasaki: 1st desc. of Kawasaki's disease
  • 1966: Pantridge: 1st mobile intensive care unit ambulances (MICA) with defibrillators, pacing and anti-arythmic capabilities
  • 1966: 1st hand held calculator
  • 1966: male sex determination found to be on short arm Y chromosome
  • 1966: valproic acid and doxycycline introduced
  • 1966: Ash: histamine H1 receptors postulated
  • 1965: 1st minicomputer
  • 1965: Watson: methyl cyanoacrylate 1st used to repair tympanic membrane
  • 1965: Van Itallie: cholestyramine, initially used for pruritis in cholestasis, was shown to lower lipids
  • 1965: Rosenberg: cisplatinum discovered
  • 1965: Saf-T coil IUCD introduced
  • 1964: pancuronium synthesized
  • 1964: Davies: amantadine discovered
  • 1963: Carson: 1st desc of homocystinuria
  • 1963: Stalder: 1st desc of trisomy 8
  • 1963: Lejeune: 1st desc of cri du chat syndrome (5P syndrome)
  • 1963: indomethacin introduced to Rx rheumatoid arthritis
  • 1963: methotrexate is the 1st drug to cure choriocarcinoma
  • 1963: Laurell: alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency discovered
  • 1963: Weinstein: gentamicin discovered
  • 1963: 1st generation cephalosporin - cephalothin studied
  • 1963: 1st successful liver transplant
  • 1962: Lippes Loop IUCD introduced
  • 1962: thalidomide causes birth defects
  • 1962: Hass: verapamil reported to have negative inotropic and chronotropic effects
  • 1962: Waring: clofibrate synthesized and found to lower total lipids and cholesterol
  • 1962: carbenoxolone used to Rx peptic ulcer disease in Europe
  • 1961: introduction of cricoid pressure during anaesthesia
  • 1961: calcitonin disc.
  • 1961: Carr: 1st desc. of XXXX syndrome
  • 1961: Jordan: increased risk of pulmonary embolism on OCP leads to dose reduction
  • 1961: rubella virus successfully cultured
  • 1961: ethambutol studied
  • 1961: methacycline introduced
  • 1961: leucotomies performed for insanity (hence the book One flew over the cuckoo's nest)
  • 1960: 1st rapid, practical CO2 analyser developed for Mx of the polio epidemic which started in 1952
  • 1960: chlorophyll synthesized
  • 1960: optical microwave laser invented
  • 1960: radio-reflector satellite launched leading to 1st weather satellite
  • 1960: Edwards: 1st recognition of trisomy 18 as a specific entity
  • 1960: Patau: trisomic aetiology discovered
  • 1960: methicillin developed
  • 1960: idoxuridine studied
  • 1960: pituitary hormone discovered
  • 1960: widespread use of the combined OCP - ethinyloestradiol 15mcg plus norethisterone 10mg

1950's:

  • the rise of effective pharmaceuticals - discovery of phenothiazines, benzodiazepines, MAOI's, beta blockers, aldosterone, ADH, angiotensin, ACE, halothane, warfarin, OCP's, metronidazole, oxytocin, heart-lung machine in surgery, Sabin polio vaccine, double helix, smoking linked to cancer
  • 1959: sex determination due to Y chromosome
  • 1959: Link: clinical safety of warfarin shown in trials
  • 1959: Cosar, Julou: metronidazole introduced to Rx trichomonas, etc
  • 1958: Noble: vinca extracts shown to cause bone marrow depression in rats
  • 1958: Powell: 1st beta blocker discovered - dichloroisoproterenol (DCI)
  • 1958: Janssen: antipsychotic properties of haloperidol
  • 1958: Kuhn: antidepressant effects of imipramine
  • 1957: giberellin isolated
  • 1957: accidental contamination of progestagens with oestrogens in OCP trials showed synergism - 1st combined OCP
  • 1957: Rock et al: showed that ovulation could be abolished by progestational agents
  • 1957: Lindenmann: disc. interferon
  • 1957: Bumpus: angiotensin II synthesized
  • 1957: Umezawa: kanamycin discovered
  • 1957: Brodie: serotonin discovered in brain tissue
  • 1957: Sternbach: chlorodiazepoxide discovered - the 1st benzodiazepine - marketed in 1961
  • 1957: MAOIs introduced for Rx of depression
  • 1957: Kirklin: use of cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery
  • 1956: anaesthesia revolutionised with introduction of halothane
  • 1956: neutrino
  • 1956: Prader et al: 1st official report of Prader-Willi syndrome
  • 1956: large scale trials of birth control pills
  • 1956: Harris: 1st case of pyridoxine-responsive anaemia described
  • 1956: Sabin: Sabin polio vaccine
  • 1956: Bertler: reserpine found to deplete tissues of noradrenaline
  • 1956: Freedman: chloquine used to Rx rheumatoid arthritis
  • 1956: Baker: chelating properties of penicillamine discovered leading to use in Rx of Wilson's disease
  • 1956: Vandeputte: amphotericin B discovered
  • 1956: McCormick: vancomycin discovered
  • 1956: 1st successful kidney transplant
  • 1955: Sarnoff: concepts of ventricular function curves established
  • 1955: UHF waves produced
  • 1955: Low: invented the Papain test
  • 1955: structure of insulin revealed
  • 1955: vitamin B12 used to Rx pernicious anaemia
  • 1955: Altschul: nicotinic acid discovered to lower blood lipids
  • c1955: Peart: recognition of 2 angiotensins and angiotensinogen converting ezyme (ACE)
  • c1955: Hodgkin: crystal structure of B12 determined by Xray diffraction
  • c1955: bretylium introduced as antihypertensive
  • 1954: Simpson et al: coined aldosterone for the substance from urine in patients with oedema
  • 1954: Duvigneaud: structure and synthesis of oxytocin
  • 1954: Salk: Salk polio vaccine
  • 1954: Dutcher: nystatin discovered
  • 1954: Berger: 1st pharmacologic report of meprobomate
  • 1953: Duvigneaud: structure and synthesis of ADH
  • 1953: Gibbon: use of heart-lung machine in cardiac surgery
  • 1953: Rahn: 1st use of a pulmonary artery balloon pump (in animals)
  • 1953: oil of Ulan marketed for skin care
  • 1953: Watson: double helix structure of DNA established
  • 1953: De Shambu Nath: showed toxin from Vibrio cholera is an exotoixin rather than an endotoxin as thought
  • 1953: smoking linked to lung cancer
  • 1953: penicillamine 1st isolated (from urine of patient with liver disease Rx with penicillin)
  • c1953: Yonkman: coined term tranquilliser to characterise the psychic effect of reserpine
  • c1953: new classes of progesterones synthesised with oral activity
  • 1952: hesperidon sulfate used as a oral contraceptive
  • 1952: McGuire: erythromycin discovered
  • 1952: Deniker: chlorpromazine introduced - the 1st of the phenothiazine major tranquillisers
  • 1952: tetracycline produced from chlortetracycline
  • 1952: Vorhees: 1st use of vascular prosthetic grafts
  • 1952: Zeller: iproniazid which had been introduced for Rx of TB was shown to elevate mood and was in fact a MAOI
  • c1952: Smith: vitamin B12 isolated and crystallized
  • 1951: nalorphine used as antidote to morphine poisoning
  • 1951: Allen et al: disc. the Kidd blood group system
  • 1951: isoniazid and serotonin synthesized
  • 1951: Mark: procainamide discovered
  • 1951: Asher: classical description of Munchausen's disease
  • 1951: Beyer: probenecid discovered after search for something to decrease excretion of penicillin
  • 1951: De Bakey: 1st use of vascular homografts
  • 1950: Mollison: disc. the Duffy blood group system
  • 1950: neomycin and oxytetracycline developed
  • 1950: reports of serious blood dyscrasias due to chloramphenicol
  • 1950: Harris: phenytoin reported to be effective in VT
  • 1950: antihistamines in common use

1940's:

  • discovery of penicillin as antibiotic, chemotherapy, cortisone, Pap smear, lignocaine, suxamethonium, methadone, chloroquine, dacron, adrenal steroids, and the elctron microscope
  • 1949: curariform action of succinylcholine discovered
  • 1949: gallamine synthesized
  • 1949: Ardis: cyanoacrylates 1st synthesized
  • 1949: Cade: 1st report of lithium for use in Rx of mania
  • 1949: Stocken: dimercapral (British AntiLewisite Agent or BAL) developed as antidote to Lewisite used in WWII
  • 1949: neomycin discovered
  • 1949: Gross: 1st surgery of the aorta
  • 1949: Hench: dramatic effects of cortisone and ACTH in Rx of rheumatoid arthritis
  • 1949: Hench: cortisone (compound E) discovered and uses adrenal steroids to Rx rheumatoid arthritis
  • 1949: phenylbutazone (BTZ) introduced to Rx rheumatoid arthritis
  • 1949: popularity of paracetamol grew as an analgesic when it was recognised to be a metabolite of phenacetin
  • 1949: Pauling: molecular basis of sickle cell anaemia
  • 1948: lidocaine / lignocaine and chlortetracycline introduced
  • 1948: Rapport: serotonin isolated (formerly vasotonin and enteramine)
  • 1948: Chaikoff: acute inhibition of synthesis of iodotyrosine and iodothyronine by iodine
  • 1948: methotrexate is the 1st drug to produce striking remissions in leukaemia
  • c1948: Hafliger: imipramine (tricyclic antidepressant) synthesized
  • c1948: lithium chloride used as a salt substitute in CCF but found to have toxicity
  • 1947: transistor invented
  • 1947: Howard Florey Institute founded in Melbourne
  • 1947: Laurell: coined transferrin
  • 1947: polymixins, aureomycin and chloromycetin developed
  • 1946: 1st programmable computer Eniac
  • 1946: Coombs: disc. the Kell antibody using his Coomb's test
  • 1946: Euler: definitive evidence that noradrenaline was the sympathetic neurotransmitter
  • 1945: Coombs: invented the indirect antiglobulin test
  • 1945: methadone synthesized
  • 1945: carbon-13
  • 1945: xerography (photocopier)
  • 1945: Chorine: nicotinamide found to be active against TB resulting in studies on isoniazid
  • 1945: Astwood: suggests phenylthiourea inhibits hormone production resulting in compensatory goitre
  • 1944: Ayre: developed the wooden spatula for use with Pap smears
  • 1944: Ikawa et al(Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation): 1st prepares racemic Warfarin - an acronym
  • 1943: Sayers: ACTH isolated
  • 1943: Shoppee: 28 steroids from adrenal cortex now isolated and characterised
  • 1943: chloroquine introduced to replace quinacrine in Rx of malaria; dapsone 1st trialled in Rx of malaria
  • 1943: bacitracin and streptomycin discovered
  • 1943: Hofmann: LSD ingested experimentally to experience its psychic effects
  • 1943: quinine synthesized
  • 1942: curare 1st used as a muscle relaxant in anaesthesia
  • 1942: Clisby: phenylthiourea shown to produce goitre in rats
  • 1942: Klinefelter: Klinefelter's syndrome
  • 1942: magnetic recording tape invented
  • 1942: Goodman: clinical studies on nitrogen mustards initiates modern cancer chemotherapy
  • 1942: clinical psychology emerged as a profession during WWII
  • 1941: 1st oximeters and capnometers
  • 1941: dacron, plutonium
  • 1941: Bywaters: crush injuries can cause acute renal damage (rhabdomyolysis)
  • 1941: Mackenzies: sulphaguanidine shown to cause goitre
  • 1941: Ingram: 1st molecular disease described - chemical difference between normal Hb and sickle cell Hb
  • 1941: Papanicolaou: demonstrated malignated change could be detected in a cervical smear - the Pap smear
  • 1941: Mitchell et al: folic acid coined
  • 1941: Levine: erythroblastosis fetalis due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus
  • 1941: Gregg: disc. that maternal rubella causes fetal blindness, etc
  • 1940: research on curare accelerates
  • 1940: emergence of theory of 2 types of adrenal steroids - mineralocorticosteroids and glucocorticosteroids
  • 1940: Braun-Menendez: reported renin was enzyme that produced angiotensin
  • 1940: Landsteiner: Rh antigen discovered
  • 1940: electron microscope invented
  • 1940: Florey: penicillin developed as an antibiotic
  • 1940: the 1st H1 antihistamines

1930's:

  • discovery of the main vitamins, sulphonamides, thiopentone, heparin, polyethylene, nylon, prolactin, improved viral culture techniques, and re-learnt iron is useful for anaemia
  • 1939: meperidine introduced as analgesic
  • 1939: DDT insecticide
  • 1939: USA introduces flour supplemented with nicotinic acid
  • 1939: FM radio invented
  • 1939: griseofulvin discovered
  • 1939: Woolley: chick antidermatitis factor found to be pantothenic acid
  • 1939: Link: haemorrhagic agent in sweet clover identified as dicoumarol
  • 1939: polyethylene
  • 1939: Faber et al: 19th century lessons regarding use of iron for anaemia re-learned and bringing it back into use again
  • 1939: Gross: cardiac surgery to repair congenital defects
  • 1938: Cairns: associated Meniere's disease with dilated membranous labyrinth
  • 1938: Turner: 1st expanded desc. of Turner's syndrome
  • 1938: Butt: combination of vitamin K and bile salts found to be effective in Rx of bleeding in jaundice
  • 1938: clinical trials of heparin after its improved purification
  • 1938: Merritt: anticonvulsant activity of phenytoin discovered without the use of sedation
  • 1937: 1st artificial heart invented
  • 1937: Plotner: quantitative measurements of iron in plasma and discussed its transport in blood
  • 1937: nylon
  • 1937: found that nicotinamide could treat black tongue in dogs (eq. of pellagra)
  • 1937: Elvehjem: vitamin A and vitamin K concentrates manufactured
  • 1937: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) introduced in psychiatry
  • 1936: Evans: vitamin E isolated
  • 1936: Gyorgy: determined the factor which caused rat dermatitis and called it vitamin B6
  • 1936: Williams: structurte of vitamin B1 determined
  • 1936: Kogl: isolated an essential growth factor for yeast in egg yolk and called this biotin
  • 1936: Mautz: procaine elevates electrical threshold of cardiac muscle
  • 1936: Starr: pharmacologic studies of methacholine, carbachol, and bethanechol
  • 1935: Stanley: tobacco virus shown to be a protein?
  • 1935: Castle: defined intrinsic factor and extrinsic factor in pernicious anaemia
  • 1935: thiopentone / thiopental used as iv anaesthetic; structure of d-tubocurarine established;
  • 1935: Warburg: nicotinamide obtained from a coenzyme in horse RBCs
  • 1935: chemical structure of reducing agent determined and called ascorbic acid / vitamin C
  • 1935: Dam: dietary bleeding disorder could be Rx with substance he coined vitamin K
  • 1934: Goldblatt et al: demonstrated constricting renal arteries could induce hypertension
  • 1934: vitamin B2 discovered
  • 1934: androsterone isolated
  • 1934: Walker: physostigmine introduced and used to Rx myasthena gravis
  • 1934: pentylenetrazol used to induce convulsions in psychiatric Rx
  • 1933: Riddle te al: coined prolactin
  • 1933: Harrop: adrenocortical insufficiency caused renal loss of sodium
  • 1933: Roughton: carbonic anhydrase discovered in RBCs
  • 1933: insulin shock Rx used in psychiatry
  • 1932: Cushing: desc. syndrome of hypercorticism “Cushing's syndrome”
  • 1932: Waugh: reducing agent in cabbage identified as the antiscorbutic agent in lemon juice
  • 1932: sulphonamides disc. Prontosil commercially sold in 1935 as an antibiotic
  • 1932: Warburg: described a yellow respiratory enzyme in yeast (later found to be riboflavin)
  • 1932: Best: choline prevents fatty liver in pancreatectomized liver dogs on insulin
  • 1931: neutron, positron
  • 1931: Fox: accidentally discovers some can taste phenylthiocarbamide while others cannot leading to a method of testing genetics and it even became robust enough to be used as a paternity test. Later, a single receptor gene was found to control the ability to taste both phenylthiocarbamide and propylthiouracil, or, PROP. Tasters vs non-tasters.
  • 1931: Britton: hypoglycaemia could be corrected with adrenocortical extracts
  • 1931: cyclotron invented
  • 1931: Karrer et al: structural formula of retinol established; vitamin A isolated;
  • 1931: Bose: Rauwolfia alkaloids used in India for hyerpetension and insanity
  • 1931: Gaddum: substance P 1st detected
  • 1931: Goodpasture: viral culture technique devised
  • 1930: Hartman: prepared adrenal gland extracts with reasonable degree of activity
  • 1930: Lehrs: disc. that there were secretors and non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva
  • 1930: Goldberger: showed certain diets caused the equivalent of pellagra in dogs (black tongue)

1920's:

  • 1929: anaesthetic properties of cyclopropane accidentally discovered leading to widespead usage
  • 1929: Chesney: studies commence on cause of goitre; shows rabbits fed on cabbage develop goitre
  • 1929: Allen: disc. the hormonal function of the corpus luteum
  • 1929: Dam: chickens fed inadequate diet developed bleeding disorder; vitamin K discovered
  • 1929: oestrone isolated
  • 1929: electroencephalogram (EEG) invented
  • 1929: Moore: purified carotene found to be a potent source of vitamin A
  • 1929: sodium nitroprusside shown to lower BP
  • 1929: quartz clock invented
  • 1929: yellow fever vaccine
  • 1929: Forestier: gold found to be effective in Rx of rheumatoid arthritis stimulates interest in gold Rx
  • 1929: 1st intravenous method to visualise urologic tract on X-rays (IVP)
  • 1928: Zondek: reports excretion of large amounts of oestrogen in urine of pregnant women
  • 1928: disc. of prolactin
  • 1928: isolated a reducing substance in cabbage and adrenal glands (vitamin C)
  • 1928: Babes: 1st cervical sampler for diagnosis of cervical cancer
  • 1928: Fleming: penicillin accidentally discovered and its antiseptic activity noted
  • 1928: Mackay: 1st soundly based investigation of iron deficiency anaemia in infants
  • 1928: Rosenthal: hydroxyurea found to have bone marrow effects in rabbits
  • c1928: Minot: effectiveness of eating liver to Rx pernicious anaemia
  • 1927: Cori: adrenal gland insufficiency caused depletion of carbohydrate stores
  • 1927: Levine: disc. M,N, and P blood groups
  • 1927: iron lung invented for polio victims
  • 1927: Lewis: triple response of intradermal histamine described
  • 1927: radiochemistry founded
  • 1927: Best: histamine shown to be an endogenous substance in tissues hence histamine
  • 1927: Moniz: X-rays used to visualise blood vessels (angiography)
  • 1926: dermatitis in rats produced by diet deficient in vitamin B2 (see Gyorgy 1936)
  • 1926: successful Rx of pernicious anaemia with diet of raw liver
  • 1926: Loewe: disc. female sex hormone in urine of women and the concentration varied with their menstrual cycle
  • 1926: Foster: disc. that hypophysectomy caused adrenal gland atrophy
  • 1926: Jansen: vitamin B1 isolated in crystalline form
  • 1926: Navratil: proved that the vagus nerve neurotransmitter is acetylcholine
  • 1926: Baker Institute founded
  • 1925: Frank et al: detected an active sex principle in the blood of sows in oestrus
  • 1925: Loewe: 1st report of a female sex hormone in the blood of animals
  • c1925: Mackay: 1st woman accepted into the Royal College of Physicians (Australia)
  • 1924: insecticides invented
  • 1924: Berman: 1st obtained active parathyroid gland extracts
  • 1924: Schofield: 1st report of haemorrhagic disorder in cattle from eating spoile sweet clover (precursor to disc. of coumarin/warfarin)
  • 1924: ephedrine introduced to Western medicine
  • 1923: acid-base theory
  • 1923: Murlin et al: disc. of glucagon
  • 1923: Allen: quantitative bioassay of ovarian extracts
  • 1923: ultracentrifuge invented
  • 1923: Dochez: scarlet fever linked to Streptococcus
  • 1923: Cutler: cardiac valvotomy
  • 1922: transmutation of elements
  • 1922: Bishop: vitamin E discovered
  • 1922: water-soluble mucopolysaccharide discovered and named heparin
  • 1922: Laterjet: vagotomy proposed for relief of abdominal pain in tabetic crises
  • c1922: WBCs discovered
  • 1922: Rossle: assoc. between small stature and defective ovarian development 1st noted
  • 1921: theory of chromosomes
  • 1921: Fahraeus: demonstrated suspension ability of blood (ie. ESR)
  • 1921: BCG vaccine
  • 1921: Banting: insulin isolated
  • 1921: Loewi: 1st proof of chemical mediation of nerve impulses (neurotransmitters)
  • 1921: X-rays used to Rx cancer
  • 1920: Cannon: 1st use of barium in radiology diagnostic studies
  • 1920: Murray: 1st to successfully Rx myxoedema with thyroid extract

1910's:

  • 1919: mass spectrograph invented
  • 1919: new neurosurgical techniques
  • 1919: Krumbhaar: sulfur mustard causes bone marrow and GIT problems
  • 1919: Mellanby: showed cod liver oil or sunlight could prevent or cure rickets
  • 1919: Hurler: desc. of Hurler syndrome
  • 1918: Frey: quinidine found to be most effective agent for AF
  • 1917: Hunter: 1st desc of Hunter syndrome
  • 1916: sympathectomy used to Rx angina
  • 1916: Bateman: rats fed egg white develop “egg white injury” (later disc. to be antagonist to biotin)
  • 1916: blood for blood transfusions refrigerated during transport
  • 1916: McLean (a med student): a phospholipid anticoagulant discovered
  • 1915: Walter and Eliza Hall founded in Melbourne and directed for the 1st 21 years by Sir Macfarlane Burnet
  • 1915: Starling: Starling's law of cardiac contractility and cardiac fibre length
  • 1915: Dominici: 1st use of x-rays for therapeutic purposes
  • 1915: Twort: disc. bacteriophage
  • 1915: Keilland: Keilland obstetric forcep invented
  • 1915: dysentery bacillus isolated
  • 1914: Wenckebach: reports of quinine alkaloids on certain arrhythmias
  • 1914: Dale: proposed existence of an acetylcholinesterase and coined term parasympathomimetic to characterise effects of acetylcholine
  • 1914: Funk: postulated pellagra was due to a dietary deficiency
  • 1914: successful heart surgery on a dog
  • 1914: thyroxine purified
  • 1913: composition of chlorophyll ascertained
  • 1913: isotope coined
  • 1913: Bohr: atomic theory
  • 1913: Geiger counter invented
  • 1913: Schick: invented Schick test for diphtheria
  • 1913: vitamin A isolated
  • 1913: Dale: 1st description of the nicotine paralyzing action of tetraethylammonium (TEA) on ganglia
  • 1912: vitamine coined
  • 1912: Herrick: studies helped clarify the syndrome of coronary occlusion
  • 1912: cellophane; Nivea skin care cream;
  • 1912: Vedder: emetine used as a systemic amoebicide
  • 1912: Wright: disc. opsonins, and developed new killed typhoid vaccine
  • 1912: acriflavine manufactured and phenobarbitol (barbiturate) introduced
  • 1911: Noon: use of desensitisation for allergic disorders
  • 1911: Taveau: methacholine 1st studied
  • 1911: Funk: highly concentrated form of active anti-beriberi factor in rice husks led to coin the term vitamines
  • 1910: Moritz: 1st clinical measurement of CVP
  • 1910: Rutherford: atomic theory of matter
  • 1910: Von Dungen: proved that blood groups were inherited
  • 1910: Barger: pharmacologic studies of a large number of sympathomimetic amines
  • 1910: Moss: discovered blood group antigens in saliva but thought they were auto-antibodies
  • 1910: Ehrlich: Salvarsan and Neosalvarsan to Rx syphilis
  • 1910: Laidlaw: intensive studies on histamine

1900's

  • 1909: MacCallum: 1st to note that parathyroidectomy affected calcium concentration
  • 1909: Nicolle: showed that typhus was transmitted by body louse
  • 1908: iv local anaesthesia method developed
  • 1908: helium liquefied
  • 1908: ammonia, bakelite synthesized
  • 1908: Epstein: suggested blood groups were inherited
  • 1908: phenytoin synthesized
  • 1907: disc. that rabbits can get scurvy leads to use of animals in medical research
  • 1907: tissue culture technique invented
  • 1907: Dixon: postulated that vagus nerve liberates a muscarine-like substance as transmitter
  • 1907: conditioned reflexes
  • 1906: Rickett: Rocky Mtn Spotted Fever transmitted by wood tick
  • 1906: Wasserman: invented Wasserman complement fixation test for syphilis
  • 1906: Bordet: disc. whooping cough bacillus Bordertella pertussis
  • 1906: Dale: discovered ergot alkaoids and 1st adrenergic blockers
  • 1905: tracheal intubation via laryngoscopy; procaine Novocaine synthesized;
  • 1905: allergy coined
  • 1905: disc. typhoid carrier status
  • 1905: Elliott: postulated that sympathetic nerve impulses releases adrenaline-like substances
  • 1905: enzyme catalysis dicovered
  • 1904: silicones disc
  • 1904: UV lamp invented
  • 1903: Einthoven: ECG invented
  • 1903: ultramicroscope invented
  • 1903: Fraenkel: showed destruction of corpus luteum in pregnant rabbits caused abortion
  • 1903: barbitol (barbiturate) introduced
  • 1902: veronal synthesized and used as a safer iv anaesthetic; routine BP measurements during anaesthesia
  • 1902: secretin discovered
  • 1902: Richet: studied and coined term anaphylaxis
  • 1902: Vamossy: laxative effect of phenolphthalein discovered
  • 1901: adrenaline isolated
  • 1901: motorcycle invented
  • 1901: Ehlers: clarification of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • 1901: Landsteiner: disc. of A,B, O blood groups
  • 1901: Shiga: killed dysentery vaccine
  • 1900: radon disc.
  • 1900: quantum theory of matter
  • 1900: Halban: ovarian transplants in animals assured sexual development and function
  • 1900: Knauer: ovarian transplants prevented symptoms of gonadectomy ⇒ ovarian control of gynaecologic function
  • 1900: Opie: demonstrated hyaline degeneration of islands of Langerhans
  • 1900: Landsteiner: observed agglutination of RBCs by human serum
  • 1900: Sudeck: desc. Sudeck's atrophy
  • 1900: Carrell: 1st arterial anastomosis surgery

19th century

1890's:

  • discovery of sympathomimetics, plague and dysentery organisms, tuberculin, immunisation, and the marketing of aspirin
  • 1899: magnetic recording invented
  • 1899: Dresser: aspirin 1st marketed - named derived from the plant spiraea
  • 1899: Abel: pressor agent in suprarenal extract named epinephrine (adrenaline)
  • 1898: krypton, neon, polonium, radium, xenon, alpha and beta rays disc
  • 1898: Langley: similarity of effects between adrenal gland extracts and sympathetic nerve stimulation
  • 1898: Loeffler: disc. virus in foot and mouth disease
  • 1898: cocaine 1st drug to be injected into spinal canal to produce spinal anaesthesia
  • 1898: Tiegerstedt: discovery of pressor agent in kidney extract coined renin
  • 1897: Beard: postulated corpus luteum serves a necessary function in pregnancy
  • 1897: Bang: Brucella abortus linked with infectious abortion of cattle
  • 1897: Kruse: dysentery bacillus disc.
  • 1897: Lustig: killed plague vaccine
  • 1897: Eijkman: showed rice husks added to diet of polished rice prevented and cured beri beri
  • 1896: Dock: case of coronary occlusion discovered during life and confirmed at PM
  • 1896: cathode rays and radioactivity disc.
  • 1896: electron and helium discovered
  • 1896: Marfan: desc Marfan's syndrome
  • 1896: Pfeiffer: killed typhoid vaccine
  • 1896: Mikulicz: surgical masks in surgery to reduce infection
  • 1896: Widal: invented Widal typhoid agglutination test
  • 1895: Rontgen: 1st use of x-rays for diagnostic purposes
  • 1895: Magnus-Levy: disc. effect of thyroid on metabolic rate
  • 1895: Schafer: pressor effects of suprarenal extracts demonstrated
  • 1895: radio telegraphy and safety razor invented
  • c1894: chloroform noted to have 5x mortality compared with ether for anaesthesia
  • 1894: Yeo: asthma Rx: pneumatic chamber (inpiration of compressed air), s/c morphine, chloroform, amyl nitrite, chloral hydrate, tobacco, nitre paper, stramonium, caffeine, emetics, iodide, arsenic, although inhaled oxygen not found useful for severe attack!
  • 1894: Yeo: pneumonia Rx: leeches, laudanum, Dover's powder, s/c morphine, quinine, inhaled turpentine, digitalis, phenacetin, blood letting, s/c strychnine, oxygen
  • 1894: Yersin: disc. plague bacillus Yersinia pestis
  • 1893: argon disc.
  • 1893: Von-Mering: paracetamol (acetaminophen) 1st used in medicine, but not widely used until 1949!
  • 1893: The John Hopkins University School of Medicine: new medical school established emphasising more bedside training of students
  • 1892: Ivanobski: disc. viral cause of tobacco mosaic disease
  • 1892: Nuttall: disc. Clostridium welchii Bacillus aerogenes capsularis
  • 1891: viscose
  • 1891: Murray: 1st to Rx a case of hypothyroidism by injecting thyroid gland extract
  • 1891: Gley: studied parathyroids and allowed functional differentiation from the thyroids
  • 1891: wireless telegraphy invented
  • 1891: Bergman: aseptic technique in surgery
  • 1890: Bunge et al: dose of iron reduced leading to ineffectiveness and it being discredited until the 1930's!
  • 1890: Koch: disc. tuberculin
  • 1890: Von Behring: 1st antitoxins developed, concept of passive immunisation
  • 1890: Fraser: stropanthus introduced as medicinal as digitalis-like actions discovered
  • 1890: Holzinger: iminodibenzyl synthesized (the precursor to later tricyclic antidepressants)
  • 1890: Koch: gold found to inhibit TB organism and thus led to trials in Rx of arthritis and SLE
  • c1890: Bilroth: 1st successful extensive operations of pharynx, larynx and stomach
  • c1890: Halsted: cocaine injected into nerve trunks to block sensation (regional anaesthesia)

1880's:

  • discovery of neuron theory, diphtheria and tetanus antitoxins, rabies vaccine, malaria, TB and pneumococcus organisms, phenacetin, pancreas role in diabetes and steam sterilisation
  • 1889: Brown-Sequard: believed that testicular extracts prevent aging, hence self-administered
  • 1889: use of rubber gloves in surgery
  • 1889: Minkowski: showed that extirpation of pancreas resulted in fatal diabetes mellitus
  • 1889: Dickinson: nicotine's actions shown to be at ganglions
  • 1888: Roux: studied bactericidal properties of blood, and discovered diphtheria toxin
  • 1887: Bruce: linked Bacillus melitensis to Malta Fever (brucellosis)
  • 1887: phenacetin introduced as antipyretic as less toxic than acetanilid
  • 1887: endemic night blindness reported in Roman Catholics fasting for lent (and corneal sloughing in breastfed babies)
  • c1887: vesicant properties of sulfur mustards 1st described
  • 1886: Fraenkel: desc. pneumococcus
  • c1886: successful use of potassium bromide to prevent convulsions
  • 1886: Fitz: nature of appendicitis typhlitis elucidated
  • 1886: Cahn: acetanilid antifebrin introduced as antipyretic but resulted in toxicity
  • 1885: orotracheal intubation using an introducer
  • 1885: localisation of visual cortical centre to occipital lobes
  • 1885: aminopyrine, germanium disc
  • 1885: Pasteur: 1st successful rabies vaccine
  • c1885: Fournier: showed relationship of syphilis to tabes dorsalis and paresis
  • 1885: steam sterilisation invented
  • c1885: Hoffman: acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) 1st prepared
  • c1885: inositol identified in urine of diabetics
  • 1884: topical application of cocaine for the eye, and used in dentistry
  • 1884: Nicolaier: disc. tetanus bacillus
  • 1883: Bizzozeri: disc. platelets
  • 1883: preventive innoculation for anthrax developed
  • 1883: Klebs: disc. diphtheria bacillus
  • 1883: Koch: disc. cholera vibrio
  • 1883: phagocyte theory developed
  • 1882: Von Recklinghausen: 1st desc. of neurofibromatosis
  • 1882: Abraham Jacobi: “father of paediatrics” founded the Pediatric section of AMA
  • 1882: Koch: disc. TB bacillus and cultured it
  • 1881: chicken cholera vaccine developed
  • 1881: malaria parasite discovered
  • 1881: Freud: psychoanalysis theory
  • 1880: 1st successful anaesthetic use of chloroform via oral tracheal tube
  • 1880: Bourneville: 1st recognition of tuberous sclerosis
  • 1880: Sertoli: disc. Sertoli cells
  • 1880: Bowman: disc. Bowman's capsule
  • 1880: Eberth: disc. typhoid bacillus
  • 1880: Takaki: 1st indication of dietary cause to beri beri in sailors (fish, meat added to polished rice meals to prevent it)
  • 1880: electrical stimulation of vagal nerve in the neck used to Rx asthma
  • c1880: evolved the filtration theory of urine formation
  • c1880: uricosuric effects of salicylates recognised and thus used to Rx gout
  • c1880: Von Behring: invented diphtheria and tetanus antitoxins
  • c1880: O'Dwyer: instruments to intubate to relieve suffering of diphtheria
  • c1880: Lieberkulin: disc. intestinal glands
  • c1880: Golgi: disc. Golgi cells, and 1st to use chrome silver nitrate stain
  • c1880: Waldeyer: disc. tonsillar ring; coined chromosomes; constructed neuron theory

1870's:

  • 1879: Bollinger: disc. actinomycosis as cause of fungus
  • 1879: Neisser: disc. gonococcus
  • 1879: Murrell: used sublingual nitroglycerin (GTN) to relieve angina and prevent exertional angina
  • 1878: Hammer: disc. thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery
  • 1878: saccharin and scandium disc.
  • 1878: Ranvier: disc. nodes of Ranvier in peripheral nerves
  • 1878: Ord: coined myxoedema believing thickened tissues due to excess mucus
  • 1878: Kodak box camera, pneumatic car tyre and microphone invented
  • 1878: phenacetin manufactured
  • c1878: iodoform used as an antiseptic in surgery
  • 1878: Sims: gall bladder opened in surgery
  • 1877: Lichtheim: noted that CVP changed with blood volume
  • 1877: oxygen liquefied
  • 1877: Koch: Koch's stain for microscopy
  • 1877: Eck: 1st surgery on AV fistulae
  • 1876: Vaseline: petroleum jelly as skin care product
  • 1875: gallium disc
  • 1875: telephone invented
  • 1875: Landois: noted agglutination of blood when blood from different animal species mixed
  • 1875: Hansen: disc. leprosy bacillus
  • 1875: Coutinhou: pilocarpine alkaloid isolated (natives had chewed leaf to stimulate salivation)
  • 1875: sodium salicylate 1st used as antipyretic to Rx rheumatic fever and other fevers
  • 1874: 1st use of iv anaesthetics
  • 1874: typewriter invented
  • 1874: Pasteur: disc. Streptococci and Staphylococci
  • 1874: Kussmaul: Kussmaul breathing; “air hunger” in diabetes;
  • 1874: Gull: 1st assoc. thyroid atrophy with “hypothyroid symptoms” - “Gull's disease”
  • 1873: Gull: good desc. of “cretinoid condition” in adult women
  • 1873: Wagner: New York Laryngoscopic Society and Metropolitan Throat Hospital founded
  • 1872: duplex telegraph and colour photographs invented
  • 1872: Biermer: coined term progressive pernicious anaemia
  • 1872: Koch: cultured anthrax bacillus and discovered its life cycle
  • 1872: Heidenhain: demonstrated atropine blocks salivary secretion by choline
  • 1872: oesophageal resection performed
  • 1870: celluloid
  • 1870: periodic law of elements
  • 1870: malaria linked to low lying marshes, night, summer, tropics

1860's:

  • 1869: Wilson: 1st descr. lichen planus
  • 1869: Schmiedeberg: muscarine alkaloid 1st isolated and pharmacologic studies commenced
  • 1869: Stein: hydroxyurea 1st synthesized
  • 1868: Addison: 1st desc. of xanthoma diabeticorum
  • 1868: Villemin: demonstrated inhaled TB sputum causes pulm. TB, but ingested, it causes intestinal TB
  • 1867: 1st use of amyl nitrite for angina
  • 1867: dynamite, bicycle invented
  • 1867: Lister: encouraged use of phenol as antiseptic in surgery
  • 1867: Baeyer: acetylcholine 1st syntheseized
  • 1867: Bezold: demonstrated that atropine blocks cardiac effects of vagal stimulation
  • 1866: Langdon-Down: 1st desc. of Mongolism (trisomy 21) Down's syndrome
  • c1865: Pfluger: founded experimental embryology
  • 1865: Fleming: disc, achromatic and chromatic parts of the nucleus
  • 1865: Davaine: anthrax bacillus discovered
  • 1865: Pasteur: disc Mycetum acidi converted wine to vinegar, can prevent by heating to kill organisms; disposed of theory of spontaneous generation
  • 1865: ophthalmia Braziliana 1st described in malnourished slaves
  • 1864: benzene ring theory
  • 1864: Von Graefe: disc. lid lag as a sign of thyrotoxicosis
  • 1864: International Red Cross established to aid wounded soldiers
  • 1863: nitrous oxide re-introduced as an anaesthetic
  • 1861: photosynthesis discovered
  • 1861: cesium, rubidium and thallium disc
  • 1861: Hutchinson: teeth defects diagnostic of congenital syphilis; used iodides and mercurials to Rx syphilis
  • 1860: Flint: 1st desc. of severe gastric atrophy and possible link with megaloblastic anaemia
  • 1860: Broca: motor cortex disc.
  • 1860: Kolbe: synthetic manufacture of salicylic acid from phenol
  • c1860: use of electrical impulses for neurologic conditions
  • c1860: use of ice or ether to anaesthetise the skin
  • c1860: s/c use of morphine as analgesic
  • c1860: use of calcium sulphide for boils
  • c1860: Leiter: 1st practical cystoscope ⇒ impetus to develop urology specialty

1850's:

  • 1859: Lind University: 1st medical school to raise entrance requirements and lengthen the course
  • 1858: Wells: operative procedures developed for surgery of ovaries, Fallopian tubes and uterus
  • 1858: spectrum analysis of substances invented
  • 1857: Pasteur: disc. fermentation is by living organisms; disc. lactobacilli can grow in CO2 only hence aerobes, anaerobes
  • 1857: Brunton: inhaled amyl nitrate used to relieve angina
  • 1856: cocaine purified
  • 1856: observed sperm entering ovum
  • 1856: Brown-Sequard: concluded adrenals are essential to life
  • 1855: Addison: clinical syndrome from destruction of adrenal glands
  • 1856: aniline dye made
  • 1856: Neanderthal man discovered
  • c1855: Brunton: phlebotomy found to help relieve severe anginal pain
  • 1854: laryngoscope invented
  • 1854: electric light globe invented
  • 1854: rayon and tungsten steel invented
  • 1854: sulphur mustard synthesised
  • 1853: quinidine 1st prepared
  • c1853: bromide is 1st agent introduced specifically as a sedative/hypnotic
  • 1852: plaster bandages invented
  • 1852: hypodermic syringe invented for subcutaneous injections
  • 1851: Corti: disc. structure of the retina, Corti's organ of the internal ear
  • 1851: ophthalmoscope invented ⇒ impetus to develop ophthalmology specialty
  • 1850: chloroform preferred over ether as anaesthetic until 1920's.
  • 1850: kinetic theory of gases
  • 1850: Curling: 1st to link myxoedema with absent thyroid glands
  • 1850: gas burner invented
  • 1850: Davaine: 1st studies on the pathogenic nature of bacteria - anthrax
  • 1850: Amici: invented oil immersion microscope objective
  • 1850: speed of nerve impulse estimated
  • c1850: gylcogenic function of liver discovered
  • c1850: lithium used to Rx gout as lithium urate found to be soluble
  • c1850: new technology cigarettes produced milder smoke and enabled greater inhalation
  • c1850: lithium bromide used to Rx epilepsy and as a sedative
  • c1850: beri beri becomes widespread in east Asia due to rice mills removing husks
  • c1850: Pasteur: rabies vaccine
  • c1850: Henle: disc. endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, renal tubules, structure and development of teh larynx
  • c1850: Sims: invented his Sims speculum and founded the 1st hospital dedicated to women - Women's Hospital of State of New York

1840's:

  • 1849: Bertler et al: disc. testis is a gland of internal secretion
  • 1848: papaverine isolated
  • 1848: Van-Heyningen: quinidine 1st described
  • 1848: Basedow: recommended iron, calomel, iodine, aloes, and rhubarb to Rx thyrotoxicosis
  • 1848: safety match invented
  • 1847: evaporated milk and meat extract invented
  • 1847: chloroform used as an anaesthetic
  • 1847: Hyrtl: German anatomy text
  • 1847: Virchow: associated emboli with endocarditis
  • 1847: Semmelweiss: associated child bed fever with puerperal infection
  • 1847: Smith: desc. Smith fracture distal radius
  • 1847: Hering: sublingual dosage of nitroglycerin (GTN)
  • 1847: American Medical Association (AMA) founded toi unite the profession and set standards
  • 1846: term anaesthesia coined; 1st successful public demonstration of surgery without pain (using ether)
  • 1846: Sobrero: nitroglycerine manufactured and found to cause headache when placed on tongue
  • 1846: sewing machine invented
  • 1846: protoplasm discovered
  • 1845: acetic acid synthesized
  • 1845: Moreau: proposed that hashish intoxication be used as a psychosis model for studying the insane
  • 1843: term hypnotism coined
  • 1843: Orfila: 1st pharmacologic studies of nicotine
  • 1842: surgical cases using sulfuric ether as anaesthetic
  • 1841: Bouillard: coined terms endocardium and endocarditis
  • 1841: Hitch: 1st college of psychiatrists - Royal College of Psychiatrists
  • 1841: Politzer: head mirror invented which aided visualisation of the ear canal ⇒ impetus to develop ENT specialty
  • 1840: nitrous oxide's analgesic properties and suggested use for surgery
  • 1840: Basedow: desc. exophthalmic goitres
  • c1840: tincture Hamamelis virginia topically for bleeding haemorrhoids
  • c1840: Purkinje: produced artificial nystagmus and gave a thesis on vision
  • c1840: Purkinje: 1st to use the microtome, and disc. Purkinje cells of cerebellum and Purkinje fibres in the heart
  • c1840: Panizza: studied lymphatics, 9th cranial nerve
  • c1840: Charles Dickens: possibly the 1st desc. of Prader-Willi syndrome
  • c1840: Dujardin: classified bacteria as bacterium, vibrio and spirillum

1830's:

  • 1839: Hope: associated aortic incompetence with diastolic murmur in aortic area
  • 1839: electric clock invented
  • 1839: tincture of iodine 1st used as an antiseptic in surgery
  • 1839: Baltimore College of Dental Surgery: 1st dental school founded
  • 1838: Remak: disc. non-medullated nerve fibres
  • 1838: Schwann: firmly established cell theory
  • 1838: Barton: desc. Barton fracture of distal radius
  • 1838: Ricord: showed gonococcal pus did not cause syphilis resolving the confusion resulting from double inoculation of the two conditions
  • 1836: pepsin discovered
  • 1836: Valentin: disc. of cell nucleoulus
  • 1835: Graves: also described goitre with thyrotoxicosis (after 1st link by Parry in 1825)
  • 1835: Pacini: disc. of sensory corpuscles
  • 1834: phenol disc
  • 1832: codeine isolated
  • 1832: Brown: disc. of cell nucleus
  • 1832: Corrigan: associated aortic incompetence with characteristic Corrigan's pulse
  • 1832: Blaud: recognised that Rx failure of chlorosis anaemia with iron was due to inadequate iron doses
  • 1832: Warburton: legalised the sale of bodies for anatomic dissection to end the ressurectionists
  • 1831: chloroform discovered;
  • 1831: Mein: purified atropine isolated
  • 1830: paraffin disc.
  • 1830: quinine used to Rx malaria
  • c1830: Muller: coined terms bacillus and spirillum and created a class infusoria consisting of membranacea and crassiuscula

1820's:

  • 1829: electromagnetic motor invented
  • 1829: Braille writing developed
  • 1829: Leroux: salicin isolated from willow bark (1st step in development of aspirin)
  • 1828: urea synthesized
  • 1828: ultraviolet light disc.
  • 1828: era of the railroad commences
  • 1828: Posselt: nicotine isolated from tobacco leaves
  • 1827: Hodgkin: associated aortic incompetence with dilated ventricles, hepatised lung, ascites and pericardial effusion
  • 1827: Von Baer: mammalian ovum
  • 1827: Bright: Bright's disease described (nephritis)
  • 1827: Amici: improved achromatic microscope lens
  • 1827: Ohm: electrical current disc.
  • 1826: aniline disc.
  • 1825: benzene isolated
  • 1825: Parry: 1st to describe goitre with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis
  • 1824-25: Addison: 1st desc. of probable megaloblastic anaemia
  • 1824: Dutrochet: disc. cellular osmosis endosmosis
  • 1824: suspended animation by inhaling CO2 to reduce pain from surgery
  • 1824: Dutrochet: universal cellular structure of tissues; growth by new formation of cells
  • 1824: Hosack: stillbirth rate increased with use of ergot
  • 1823: Mitre-Edwards: disc. tissues are composed of spherical corpuscles 1/300th mm in diameter (cells)
  • 1823: Bell: observed trigeminal nerve is both motor and sensory
  • 1823: chlorine liquefied
  • 1823: the Lancet founded
  • 1822: Mendel: founds genetics
  • 1821: Bell: disc. exterior respiratory nerve and desc. facial nerve palsy
  • 1820: Pelletier: quinine and cinchonine isolated from cinchona
  • 1820: mesmerism used to reduce pain from surgery
  • 1820: galvanometer invented
  • 1820: Rolando: studies of brain and spinal cord
  • 1820: Pelletier: colchicine isolated from colchicum

1810's:

  • 1819: isomorphism
  • 1819: electromagnetism
  • 1817-18: Berzelius: lithium, selenium and cadmium disc.
  • 1817: Parkinson: 1st desc. of Parkinson's disease paralysis agitans
  • 1816: Laennec: invented stethoscope
  • 1814: Colle: desc. of fractured distal radius in elderly women
  • 1812: NEJM medical journal 1st published as NEJM&S
  • 1812: Baer: 1st professor of ophthalmology
  • 1811: Avogadro: molecular composition of gases theory
  • 1811: Bell: disc. anterior spinal roots are motor, and posterior are sensory
  • 1810: canning of foods invented

1800's

  • 1809: McDowell: 1st successful ovarian cystectomy (~20lbs) without GA
  • 1805: morphine isolated; curare investigated;
  • 1803: Berzelius: cerium disc.
  • 1803: Portal: published anatomy text in 5 volumes
  • 1803: Napoleon: decreed the categories of those who practice medicine
  • 1802: Dalton: atomic theory developed
  • 1802: 1st children's hospital - L'Hospital des Enfants Malades in Paris
  • 1800: Bichat: founded system based on normal and pathologic structure based on tissues rather than organs
  • 1800: Desgranges: 1st physician to use ergot (had been used by midwives in past)
  • 1800: Herschel: infrared rays disc.
  • c1800: cautery used for liver abscesses and splenic disease;

18th century

1790's:

  • 1799: 1st national pharmacopoeia published (Prussia)
  • 1799: Ferriar: 1st desc. of cardiac actions of digitalis
  • 1798: Jenner: attenuated smallpox vaccine
  • 1797: chromium discovered
  • 1797: Blane: after 180yrs, Navy finally accepts evidence of lime to prevent scurvy on ships
  • 1796: Jenner: 1st vaccine (cowpox)
  • 1796: Lowitz: pure ethanol manufactured
  • 1794: Beddoes, Wat, Davy: inhalational oxygen Rx

1780's:

  • 1786: Klaproth: uranium disc.
  • 1785: Berthollet: chemical bleaching invented
  • 1780: Fontana: water gas disc.
  • 1780: Franklin: bifocal lens invented

1770's:

  • 1779: Spallanzani: semen is necessary for fertilisation
  • 1778: Gleichen: use of indigo and carmine stains in microscopy
  • 1777: Lavoisier: air is mainly nitrogen and oxygen
  • 1776: Hunter: noted PM changes in myocardium associated with angina
  • 1776: Dobson: proved that sweet tasting urine of diabetics is due to sugar
  • 1775: Priestley: hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid disc.
  • 1775: Withering: use of digitalis as diuretic for dropsy (CCF)
  • 1774: manganese, baryta and chlorine disc.
  • 1774: Mesmer: hypnotism used for health purposes
  • 1772: Priestley: nitrogen and nitrous oxide discovered
  • 1771: Galvani: electrical nature of the nervous system

1760's:

  • 1769: Morgagni: associated aortic incompetence with SOB, pleural effusions and palpitations, and noted association between endocarditis and gonorrhoea
  • 1768: Heberden: this account of angina pectoris led to it being accepted as a distinct disease entity
  • 1767: Hunter: accidentally inoculated himself with both syphilis and gonococcus causing confusion!
  • 1766: Cavendish: hydrogen less dense than air
  • 1765: Spallanzani: hermetic sealing of food
  • 1763: Von-storck: colchicum introduced as Rx of gout
  • 1762: Plenciz: concept of contagion due to a semiale verminosum - a different “seed” for each disease

1750's:

  • 1754: Black: carbonic acid gas disc.
  • 1750: obstetric forceps refined by adding a pelvic curve, 1st recorded use of forceps to rotate the head before delivery, and 1st recorded use of forceps to deliver the after-coming head in breech deliveries
  • c1750: opium smoking popular in the Orient
  • c1750: Stone: willow bark had effect on agues (fever)

1740's:

  • 1749: De-senac: cinchona used to Rx AF
  • 1748: Fothergill: desc. of diphtheria
  • 1747: Lind: pioneering trial of oranges and lemons to prevent scurvy on ships

1730's:

  • 1736: Aymand: 1st successful appendicectomy (appendectomy)
  • 1733: Butter: 1st public demonstration of use of obstetric forceps
  • 1730: Reaumur: alcohol thermometer invented

1720's:

  • 1726: Hales: 1st to measure human BP
  • 1724: Boerhaave: 1st to describe rupture of the oesophagus Boerhaave's syndrome
  • 1723: Riverius: 1st desc. in literature of clinical picture of bacterial endocarditis
  • 1720: Hales: 1st to measure CVP and BP (in dog and horse)

1710's:

  • 1717: Montagu: smallpox innoculation introduced in England
  • 1715: Vieussens: clinical features of pulmonary valve incompetence
  • 1714: Fahrenheit: mercury thermometer invented
  • 1714: Anel: fine pointed syringe for syrgery
  • 1713: Lemery: demonstrated iron was present in blood

1700's

  • 1708: Boerhaave: theory of inflammation put forth
  • 1707: Floyer: introduced counting pulse beats
  • 1706: Cowper: ossifications of aortic valves and noted aortic incompetence
  • 1704: Valsalva: subdivided ear into external, middle and inner
  • 1704: Valsalva: 1st to trate the insane with humane methods
  • 1700: Baglivi: disc. of smooth and striped muscle types
  • 1700: Toumefort: ammonium chloride disc.
  • 1700: Portal: disc. placenta praevia

17th century

1690's:

  • 1696: Wiseman: classicall account of scrofula
  • 1695: Grew: magnesium sulphate isolated
  • 1694: Dekkers: disc. albumin in urine
  • 1694: Morton: proved that lung tubercles produced one o the most widespread forms of consumption
  • 1691: Havers: disc. of Haversian canals in bone

1680's:

  • 1689: Morton: tubercles in TB
  • 1687: Brunner: disc. of duodenal glands
  • 1687: Cestoni: disc. ascaris as cause of scabies
  • 1685: Nuck: disc. salivary ducts
  • 1685: De Vieussens: 1st adequate description of left ventricle and coronary vessels
  • 1683: Leeuwenhoek: explanation of accommodation of the eye
  • 1683: Leeuwenhoek: disc. of RBC's, spermatozoa, protazoa, and bacteria; desc. anatomic structure of teeth;
  • 1682: Van Meekeren: 1st desc. of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • 1681: Sydenham: identified iron as a Rx for chlorosis of adolescent women (anaemia)
  • 1680: Sylvius: note role of lung tubercles in phthisis

1670's:

  • 1679: Willis: noted diabetics have sweet tasting urine
  • 1679: Bonetus: desc. miliary TB
  • 1679: Vesalius: binary number system developed
  • 1677: Peyer: disc. of Peyer's patches in small intestine
  • 1675: Leeuwenhoek: microorganisms observed
  • 1673: Malpighi: 1st to demonstrate development of the ovum
  • 1672: De Graaf: disc. of ovarian follicles
  • 1672: introduced ipecacuanha from Brazil to Rx dysentery
  • 1671: Leibniz: integral calculus developed
  • 1671: Leibniz: nature and existence of ether
  • 1670: 1st minute hands on watches

1660's:

  • 1669: phosphorus 1st prepared
  • 1668: Leibniz: 1st desc. of RBCs
  • 1666: Meibom: disc. of conjunctival glands
  • 1665: Newton: differential calculus developed
  • 1664: Willis: disc. of cerebral blood vessels circle of Willis
  • 1663: Newton: Binomial theorem developed
  • 1662: Bellini: disc. of renal tubules (not chords as had been proposed)
  • 1662: Sylvius: disc. parotid and lachrymal ducts
  • 1661: Malpighi: one of the 1st to use microscope on tissues; 1st demonstrate vesicular structure and capillaries in the lungs; disc. splenic corpuscles and renal glomeruli;
  • 1661: Huygens: manometer for gases invented
  • 1660: Earl of Clarendon: one of the earliest accounts of angina pectoris

1650's:

  • 1659: Willis: 1st desc. of typhoid fever
  • 1658: Wepfer: apoplexy (stroke) caused by cerebral haemorrhage
  • 1657: Bartholin: desc. what we now call trisomy 13
  • 1657: Calmette: described encephalitis epidemic in Denmark
  • 1656: Wharton: disc. of submandibular gland duct
  • 1654: Pascal: theory of probability developed
  • 1650: Calmette: described intestinal lymphatics & drainage via thoracic duct into venous system
  • c1650: Riviere: used antimony to Rx many fevers
  • c1650: potato, tea, coffee, cocoa, digitalis leaves intoduced to Europe

1640's:

  • 1647: Chamberlen: use of obstetric forceps
  • 1642: Wirsung: disc. of pancreatic duct
  • c1641: arsenic 1st used in medicine since the Dark Ages?

1630's:

  • 1633: Calancha: 1st written record of use of cinchona to Rx fever and tertians (malaria)

1620's:

  • 1628: Colle: 1st definite desc. of blood transfusion but later banned by government
  • 1628: Harvey: proved beyond doubt the physics of the general circulation of blood* using mathematical proofs *1627: Aselli Gaspare: disc. of lymphatics *1626: Santorio: 1st use of thermometer to record human temperature *1625: Glauber: disc. sodium sulphate *1620: Oughtred: invented sliderule ====1610's:==== *1617: Landois: advocated lemon juice to cure scurvy on ships but not accepted by the navy! *1614: Napier: invented logarithms ====1600's==== *1603: Paracelsus: diabetes due to salt in urine? Linked cretinism to endemic goitre *1602: Cascarido: barium sulfide disc. *1602: Platter: accurate desc. of cretinism and associated it with goitre =====16th century===== ====1590's:==== *1596: Galileo: thermometer invented *1595: Mercurio: 1st to maintain that a protracted pelvis is an indication for Caesarian section *1590: Janssen: 1st compiund microscope *c1590: tobacco smoking 1st observed in Europeans ====1580's:==== *1582: Lonicer: ergot used as proven method of producing pains in the womb; used by midwives; *1580: Tagliocozzi: rhinoplasty via skin flap from arm *1580: Raleigh: native curare preparations brought to Europe and studied ====1570's:==== *c1570: Variolo: desc. of pons, crura cerebri, optic commissures ====1560's:==== *1560: Pare: 1st to practice podalic version in labour *c1560: Ingrassia: disc. of seminal vesicles and stapes *c1560: Eustachio: discovery of Eustachian tube *c1560: Aranzio: anatomy of the fetus; discovered ductus arteriosis & ductus venosus; *c1560: Coiter Volcher: studied bone development in the fetus *c1560: D'Acquapendante Gerolama Fabrizio: studied anatomy and physiology of the fetus, generation and childbirth; venous valves *c1560: Carcano Giambattista: 1st desc. foramen ovale & ductus arteriosis, 1st accurate desc. of ocular muscles and lachrymal gland *1560: Cesalpino: 1st to use the term circulation and discover the general circulation *1560: Pare: abolished cautery and boiling oil onto wounds; ligated arteries at haemorrhaging wounds *c1560: Ingrassia: 1st to distinguish chicken pox and scarlatina from measles ====1550's:==== *1550: Vesalius: *1st description of corpus luteum and corrected Galen's errors on the uterus; course of the veins; careful description of the heart anatomy; *1st to show atificial respiration could keep an animal alive even after it's thorax is opened *1550: Colombo: 1st to state that the arteria venosa carried blood not air from lungs to heart *1550: Cannano: 1st description of valves within the veins *1550: Fallopio: 1st description of the chorda tympani and semicircular canals, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, arteria profunda of penis *1550: Fuchsius: foxglove desc. botanically and named Digitalis purpurea ====1540's:==== ====1530's:==== *1535: Brunfels: 1st adequate pharmacopoeia *1535: Cartier: learnt from Canadian Indians that spruce leaves cured scurvy *1530: Gallicus Sive Morbus: 1st to clearly attribute spread of disease by living organisms *c1530: Fabricius of Acquapendente: ligation of arteries, techniques for tracheotomy, thoracentesis, urethral surgery, apparatus for wry neck, spinal curvatures, ====1520's:==== *1527: De Bethencourt: coined term venereal disease and recognised it could be transmitted to offspring *1520: Fracastoro: recognised 3 forms of contagion: simple contact, fomites and transmission by distance *1520: Paracelsus: *reformed the materia medica, introduced arsenic, mercury, lead, created laudanum (an opium tincture) and coined the term zink for the metal zinc *re-popularised use of opium as therapeutic in Europe *“All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; only the dose permits something not to be poisonous.” *discarded the 4 humours doctrine of that illness was caused by imbalance of the Hippocratic 4 humours - blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile, and believed that illness was caused by external factors** and that sickness and health relied on harmony between man and nature, and thus astrology was a significant part of his medicine.

1510's:

1500's

  • 1514: De Vigo: excellent desc. of syphilis, used mercury plaster and cautery of lesion
  • 1502: Almenar: recognised importance of sexual contact for transmission of syphilis but believed clergy caught it some other way
  • 1500: Da Carpi: 1st careful examination of tympanic membrane, pineal gland, lateral ventricle of the brain and valves of the heart
  • c1500: Da Carpi: mercury used to Rx syphilis for centuries
  • c1500: Chinese used dried skin of toads (contains glycosides)
  • c1500: psilocin-containing mushrooms used by SW American natives

15th century

  • 1497: Leoniceno: 1st description of syphilis in Europe (brought from America by Columbus' sailors)
  • 1495: Zerbi: 1st studies of infantile anatomy
  • 1490: Achillini discovers 4th cranial nerve and function of 1st pair of cranial nerves
  • 1480: Da Vinci studies anatomy without regard for Galen's findings, including sections of brain and cranial nerves; 1st accurate description of uterus and fetal membranes;
  • 1480: Savonarola: studied contraced pelves and their importance in labour
  • c1480: Brunschwig: illustrated descriptions of surgical techniques
  • c1480: Bagellardi: one of the earliest paediatric books
  • 1471: Ferrari coins the term ovary for the female testicle
  • 1463: printing invented
  • 1460: Benivieni: post mortem studies to find cause of disease - the “father of pathologic anatomy”
  • 1450: Krebs: advocated use of the water clock to time respiratory and heart rates

14th century

  • 1350: John of Ardenne: 1st English surgeon
  • 1340: Guy de Chauliac: used Theodoric's narcotic or soporific inhalant as an anaesthetic
  • c1300: Arabian traders introduce opium to the orient
  • c1300: Guy de Chauliac: noted cinchona bark had been used for centuries by Sth American natives to Rx malaria

13th century

  • 1250: Welsh physicians use foxglove (digitalis)

12th century

11th century

  • 1010: Avicenna: attempted to codify all medical knowledge

10th century

dark ages

  • 890: Rhazes/Rasis (Persian): 1st documented authentic account of measles and smallpox
  • c635: Paul of Aegina:
    • aware of different types of parasites: taenia, ascaris and oxyuris
    • desc. catheterisation with subsequent injection of drugs
    • Rx of anal fistulae, haemorrhoids, varices, anal condylomata
    • extirpation rather than cautery for breast cancer
    • inguinal hernia surgery; lithotomy for bladder stones;
  • 550: colchicum used to Rx joint pain

ancient Hindu

  • c100BC: Rauwolfia alkaloids used for bites, insanity

ancient Chinese

  • c100BC: ephedrine containing plants used

ancient Roman

  • c200AD: Aretaeus:
    • diabetes is the melting down of flesh into urine, Rx by quenching thirst
    • hemiplegia due to a lesion on the opposite side of the brain
  • c100AD: “squill” used as diuretic, heart tonic, emetic, and rat poison

ancient Greek

  • c150AD: Galen (120-200AD):
    • perpetuated Hippocratic medicine, moving both forward and backward
    • desc. of cholera and hydrophobia
    • laudable pus essential for healing
    • desc. malingers and nerve lesions
    • used rib resection to Rx empyema
    • noted cervical dilatation in labour
  • c200BC: Dioscorides: poisonous action of colchicum
  • c350BC: recognised pustules on grain can cause abortion
  • c400BC: Hippocrates (c460-370BC):
    • founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine and regarded as the father of western medicine
    • credited with greatly advancing the systematic study of clinical medicine, and the Hippocratic Oath
    • separated the discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of environmental factors, diet, and living habits.
    • focus on patient care and prognosis rather than diagnosis which was the prime goal of the Knidian school of medicine
    • made careful, regular note of many symptoms including complexion, pulse, fever, pains, movement, and excretions
    • began to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic and epidemic, and use terms such as, “exacerbation, relapse, resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak, and convalescence”
    • Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions such as:
      • finger clubbing, Hippocratic face, Hippocratic succussion is the internal splashing noise of hydropneumothorax or pyopneumothorax
      • descriptions of the symptomatology, physical findings, surgical treatment and prognosis of thoracic empyema
    • vaginal pessaries used for prolapse, cancer of uterus and for sterility
    • documentation of a vaginal speculum
    • traction methods to Rx bone fractures (eg. Hippocratic bench), and divided fractures into simple and compound
    • used gold wire to bind fractured jaws
    • 1st documented chest surgeon and used of lead pipes to drain chest wall abscesses
    • rectal speculum and proctoscopy
    • haemorrhoid cautery, ligation and excision
    • reduction of dislocated shoulders by extension, traction and foot in axilla
    • obese die earlier
    • rest relieves pain
    • gout does not occurt in eunuchs, women or young men
    • malaria divided into types: quotidian, tertian, and quartan
    • phthisis, TB spine with tubercles
    • cataract surgery
    • use of oak bark, sanguis draconis, grenadine, juice of scilla, celery, parsley, white hellebone, hyssop, root of thassia, belladonna, mandragora, jusquiam, opium, castor oil, coloquin, sulphur, asphalt, alum, lead, copper, arsenic
    • eat liver to cure night blindness
    • noted different ages get different conditions, eg toddlers get:
      • tonsil affections, incurvature cervical spine, asthma, roundworm, ascarides, achrochordon, struma, tubercles
    • importance of diet, massage, exercise, gymnastics, sea bathing
    • healing by secondary intention if unable to gain close wound approximation and healing by 1st intention
    • importance of pure or boiled water or wine in Mx of wounds, and to avoid greasy dressings
    • sandy sediment in urine indicates bladder calculus
    • spontaneous bloody urine represents rupture of small vein in kidney
    • believed fertilisation was due to a mix of male and female seed
    • thought that the uterus was always bicornuate and that males conceived on the right, and females on the left horn
  • c450BC:
    • usage of animal cadavers to learn anatomy as Greece banned human dissection
    • arsenic used as a medicinal

ancient Egyptian

  • 1000BC: squill containing cardiac glycosides used
  • 1500BC: reference to polyuria, trachoma, hookworm, filariasis, arthritis
  • 1500BC: desc. of night blindness
  • 5000BC: castor oil used as laxative

stone age

  • 9000BC: castration ⇒ eunuch
h_medicine.txt · Last modified: 2013/01/28 02:32 by gary1