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leukaemia

leukaemia

introduction

  • usually present by causing anaemia, bleeding from thrombocytopenia, or infections or mouth ulcers from impaired immunity from inadequate mature, functional white cells
  • chronic forms may be detected incidentally on blood films, or by finding hepatosplenomegaly, or Ix of anorexia, night sweats or LOW
  • 90% occur in adults but only accounts for 3% of adult cancers
  • accounts for a third of all childhood cancers and is the 2nd most common cause of cancer in children under 12 months age, and the most common cancer in children over 12 months of age
  • two main categories based upon temporal course:
    • acute leukaemias are those with a rapid increase in the numbers of immature blood cells. Most childhood leukaemias are acute.
    • chronic leukaemias have a slow (months-years) build up of relatively mature blood cells
  • two main categories based upon blood cell type:
    • lymphoblastic or lymphocytic
    • myeloid or myelogenous
  • hence 4 main types based upon the above combinations plus some less common types

acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)

  • most common type of leukemia in young children
  • also in adults, especially aged 65yrs and older
  • 85% survival rate in children, 50% in adults

chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)

  • mainly occurs in adults aged 55yrs and over, with 2/3rds in men
  • almost never occurs in children
  • 5yr survival 75%

acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML)

  • mainly in men but also occurs in children and women
  • 5yr survival 40%

chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML)

hairy cell leukaemia (HCL)

  • 80% are adult men
  • none in young children
  • incurable but easily treatable with 96-100% 10 year survival

T-cell pro-lymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL)

  • very rare, aggressive laekaemia mainly affecting adults

large granular lymphocytic leukaemia

  • rare, indolent, involves B cells

adult T-cell leukaemia

  • caused by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) which infects CD4+ T-cells
leukaemia.txt · Last modified: 2013/12/30 16:43 (external edit)