hepatitis C virus
- a single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) hepacivirus, a member of the flaviviridae viruses
- the most frequent cause of parenteral non-A, non-B hepatitis worldwide.
- causes 20% of acute viral hepatitis cases in USA.
- mainly spread by blood transmission, primarily from sharing needles between intravenous drug users (IVDU) or injection drug use (IDU)
- risk from needlestick injury from a hep C +ve source is approximately 3%
- no vaccination available
- no antiviral prophylactics available
- most cases develop chronic hep C infection and hepatitis
- HCV infection confers a 15-20x risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (but most of this risk is limited to those with advanced hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis)
- HCV epidemics: Japan 1920's; southern Europe 1940's; Nth America 1960's-70's;
- in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, HCV markers are found in 80-90% if Japanese, 44-66% if Italian, 30-50% if USA.
- risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma with HCV infection include:
- older age at time of infection
- coinfection with HIV or HBV
- possibly diabetes or obesity
- chronic heavy alcohol intake
hcv.txt · Last modified: 2011/10/04 08:08 by 127.0.0.1