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causes of hepatitis

    • hepatitis A
      • is a picornavirus that is resistant to many environmental factors (eg, temperature, certain chemicals) and is mainly transmitted by the faecal-oral route, and accounts for a third of all new cases of acute viral hepatitis in USA.
    • hepatitis B
      • belongs to the hepadna viruses. Hepatitis B virus is responsible for almost half of the cases of acute viral hepatitis cases reported in the United States. Highest rate of acute infection in USA occurred in patients aged 25-44 years in 2006.
      • one of the main causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma
    • hepatitis C
      • a single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus that is the most frequent cause of parenteral non-A, non-B hepatitis worldwide. It causes 20% of acute viral hepatitis cases in USA.
      • one of the main causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma
      • chronic infection also associated with sporadic form of porphyria cutanea tarda.
    • hepatitis D
      • a defective, single-stranded RNA virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus to replicate.
      • ~4% of cases of acute hepatitis B virus in the US are thought to involve co-infection with hepatitis D virus
    • hepatitis E
      • the primary cause of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis; most outbreaks occur in developing countries.
    • hepatitis G
      • characterized in 1996, is associated with acute and chronic liver disease, but studies have not clearly implicated hepatitis G virus as an etiologic agent of hepatitis. It is transmitted through blood and blood products.
    • severe, non A-E hepatitis
      • usually occurs mainly in children under 5yrs and pathogen is yet to be isolated
      • Victoria usually has 5-6 cases per year with 1-2 needing a transplant
      • in 2022, an outbreak initially in Europe of childhood hepatitis seems to be spreading globally and ~10% need transplants
    • other viral infections may cause mild hepatitis such as:
      • infectious mononucleosis
      • cmv
  • drug-induced hepatotoxicity:
  • biliary obstruction
hepatitis.txt · Last modified: 2022/05/16 20:09 by gary1

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