hepatitis B virus
highly transmissible if no vaccination (~10x more infectious than with similar exposure to hepatitis C virus
and ~100x more infectious than needlestick exposures to HIV / AIDS
can occur via a number of routes - percutaneous (needlestick, IVDU, tatooing, or body piercing), parenteral (transfusions), transdermal if broken skin, mucosal (especially anal intercourse), or vertical transmission during perinatal period.
it seems vertical transmission from mother to baby can be prevented by giving the mother tenofovir, an antiviral agent, in the 3rd trimester through to 8 weeks post-partum.
following exposure, acute hepatitis B infection has an incubation period of 6-12 weeks
adults commonly develop symptoms of jaundice (icterus)
, anorexia, nausea, RUQ discomfort and fatigue, but fortunately, over 95% will spontaneously clear the virus
only 30% of children will spontaneously clear the virus
perinatal acquisition is commonly asymptomatic but only 5% will clear the virus
1% may develop acute liver failure and develop hepatic encephalopathy
- these patients should be referred to a transplant unit
Rx is mainly supportive
chronic hepatitis B
phases of chronic hepatitis B
hbv.txt · Last modified: 2014/03/19 00:07 by gary1