is a picornavirus that is resistant to many environmental factors (eg, temperature, certain chemicals) and is mainly transmitted by the faecal-oral route, and accounts for a third of all new cases of acute viral hepatitis in USA.
belongs to the hepadna viruses. Hepatitis B virus is responsible for almost half of the cases of acute viral hepatitis cases reported in the United States. Highest rate of acute infection in USA occurred in patients aged 25-44 years in 2006.
a defective, single-stranded RNA virus that requires the presence of hepatitis B virus to replicate.
~4% of cases of acute hepatitis B virus in the US are thought to involve co-infection with hepatitis D virus
the primary cause of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis; most outbreaks occur in developing countries.
characterized in 1996, is associated with acute and chronic liver disease, but studies have not clearly implicated hepatitis G virus as an etiologic agent of hepatitis. It is transmitted through blood and blood products.
other viral infections may cause mild hepatitis such as:
more than 900 drugs, toxins, and herbs have been reported to cause drug induced liver injury (DILI).
drugs account for 20-40% of all instances of fulminant hepatic failure
protein shakes containing green tea extracts have caused acute fulminant liver failure
in China, drug-induced hepatotoxicity was the cause of 44% of cases of acute liver failure, and of drug-induced ALF, 38% due to traditional Chinese medicines, 27% due to paracetamol overdose, 14% due to antibiotics 1)