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Raynaud's phenomenon

see also:


  • recurrent vasospasm of fingers and toes (may also affect ears, tip of nose) resulting in pallor, cyanosis, then erythema and a sense of fullness, in response to cold exposure
  • young female patients who have had Raynaud phenomenon alone for more than 2 years and have not developed any additional manifestations are at low risk for developing an autoimmune disease.1)
  • prevalance in Caucasians: 11% of women and 8% of men


primary Raynaud's disease

  • usually occurs in young adults
  • attacks triggered by exposure to cold and/or stress
  • symmetric bilateral involvement
  • no necrosis (very rare but may occur)
  • no detectable underlying cause
  • normal lab findings

secondary Raynaud's phenomenon

trauma or chemical exposure

  • frostbite
  • vibration injury
  • PVC exposure, or other organic solvent exposure
  • lead, arsenic exposure

autoimmune diseases


neoplastic syndromes

metabolic and haematologic syndromes


differential diagnosis of peripheral cyanosis

raynauds.txt · Last modified: 2012/07/13 17:28 (external edit)